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    [多语种翻译] 中英文广论学习:词句对照

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     楼主| 发表于 2012-12-5 09:15:30 | 显示全部楼层
    本帖最后由 贤勤 于 2012-12-5 09:18 编辑

    p39(电子版英文版广论的页码)
    deceit[dɪ'siːt]谄【欺诈】
    pretension[prɪ'tenʃ(ə)n]狂【自负】
    infraction[ɪn'frækʃ(ə)n]罪【违反】(轻微的罪)
    courageous[kə’reɪdʒəs]勇【勇敢的】
    rite[raɪt]仪轨

    以下是电子版英文广论39页~40页部分内容
    Because you had mindfulness and vigilance,
    You had no unethical thoughts.
    Conscientious and alert, with no deceit or pretension,
    You were not stained by the faults of infractions.

    Thus, Atisha was not only courageous in promising to train in the ethical discipline of the three vows, but he also guarded that ethical discipline by keeping his promises and not transgressing the boundaries of the rules. Even when he slightly transgressed, he immediately purified that infraction with the appropriate rite for restoring the vow. Know that this biography delights scholars who understand the key points of the scriptures; emulate such excellent beings.
     楼主| 发表于 2012-12-6 14:06:01 | 显示全部楼层
    p40(电子版英文版广论的页码)
    common共者
    uncommon不共者
    meditative serenity[sɪ'renɪtɪ]奢摩他,止
    insight['ɪnsaɪt]t观,毗婆舍那
    a union of meditative serenity and insight止观双运

    以下是电子版英文广论40页部分内容
    b. That Atisha possessed the training in concentration
    1) The training in concentration common to sutra and tantra
    His mind became serviceable by means of meditative serenity.
    2) The training in the uncommon concentrations
    He reached a very stable stage of generation due to having practiced the deeds of proficient conduct for six or three years. At that
    time, after hearing the secret tantric songs sung by d&kinis in Oddiyana, he committed them to memory.

    c. That Atisha possessed'the training in wisdom
    1) The common training in wisdom
    He gained a concentration of insight that was a union of meditative serenity and insight.
     楼主| 发表于 2012-12-7 09:47:40 | 显示全部楼层
    本帖最后由 贤勤 于 2012-12-7 09:48 编辑

    p40(电子版英文版广论的页码)
    path of preparation加行道
    uphold [ʌp'həʊld]住持【支撑】
    corruption[kə'rʌpʃ(ə)n]垢秽【堕落、腐败】
    ignorance['ɪgn(ə)r(ə)ns] 未达【无知】
    wrong ideas邪解
    doubts疑惑

    以下是电子版英文广论40页部分内容
    2) The uncommon training in wisdom
    He gained a special concentration of the stage of completion. Eighty Verses of Praise:
    It is clear that you achieved the path of preparation
    In accordance with the texts of the mantra vehicle.

    C. Having gained those good qualities, what Atisha did to further the teachings
    1. What he did in India
    In the palace of the great enlightenment at the glorious Bodh-gaya, he upheld the Buddhist teaching three times by using the teachings to vanquish the poor instruction of non-Buddhist philosophers. With regard to the higher and lower of our own Buddhist schools, he furthered the teachings through clearing away the corruptions of ignorance, wrong ideas, and doubts. So it is that all of the schools, without partisanship, consider him a crown jewel. Eighty Verses of Praise:
     楼主| 发表于 2012-12-8 10:56:07 | 显示全部楼层
    p41(电子版英文版广论的页码)
    Tibet [ti'bet] 西藏
    renunciate[rɪ'nʌnsɪeɪt]【放弃,出家人】
    pray[preɪ]启(祈)请
    condense[kən'dens]总集【浓缩】
    fortunate students善士

    以下是电子版英文广论41页部分内容
    2. What he did in Tibet
    The royal renunciates, uncle and nephew, sent to India in succession the two translators, Gya-dzon-seng (brGya-brtson-seng) and Nag-tso Tshul-trim-gyal-wa (Nag-tsho-tshul-khrims-rgyal-ba). Because they made great efforts to invite him again and again, Atisha went to Upper Nga-ri (mNga'-ris) during the time of Jangchup-(Byang-chub-'od).

    When they welcomed him there, his hosts prayed that he might purify the Buddhist teaching. Based on this prayer, he furthered the teaching through activities such as composing the Lamp for the Path to Enlightenment, a text that brings together the stages of practice, condensing all the key points of the sutra and mantra vehicles. Moreover, for three years at Nga-ri, nine years at Nye-tang (sNyethang), and five years at other places in U (dBus) and Tsang (gTsang), he taught all the instructions for the texts of the sutra and mantra vehicles to fortunate students. The result was that he reestablished the practices of the Buddhist system that had disappeared; he reinvigorated those that remained only slightly; and he removed corruption based on misconceptions. Thus he made the precious teachings free of defilement.
     楼主| 发表于 2012-12-9 21:01:58 | 显示全部楼层
    p41(电子版英文版广论的页码)
    reestablish[,riːɪ'stæblɪʃ]【重建】
    reinvigorate[,ri:in'viɡəreit]【使复兴】
    defilement[di'failmənt]污垢
    Padmasambhava莲花生
    dissemination[di:semi'neiʃən]【传染】

    以下是电子版英文广论41页部分内容
    When they welcomed him there, ………………The result was that he reestablished the practices of the Buddhist system that had disappeared; he reinvigorated those that remained only slightly; and he removed corruption based on misconceptions. Thus he made the precious teachings free of defilement.

    In general, the glorious Santaraksita and Padmasambhava introduced the practices of the Buddhist system to the Land of Snow [Tibet] during the early dissemination of the teaching. However, the Chinese abbot Ha-shang (Hva-shang) caused the teaching to decline. He did not understand emptiness correctly and thereby denigrated the factor of method and negated bringing anything to mind, even virtues. The great master Kamalasila, after refuting Ha-shang well, established the Conqueror's intent; hence, his kindness was most great.
     楼主| 发表于 2012-12-10 10:02:51 | 显示全部楼层
    本帖最后由 贤勤 于 2012-12-11 08:09 编辑

    p41~p42(电子版英文版广论的页码)
    denigrate['denɪgreɪt]谤
    fancy['fænsɪ]自矜【自负】
    misconstrue[mɪskən'struː]倒执【曲解】
    elucidate [ɪ'l(j)uːsɪdeɪt]显【阐明】
    Sage[seɪdʒ]能仁【圣人】

    以下是电子版英文广论41页~42页部分内容
    In general, the glorious Santaraksita and Padmasambhava …………He did not understand emptiness correctly and thereby denigrated the factor of method and negated bringing anything to mind, even virtues. The great master Kamalasila, after refuting Ha-shang well, established the Conqueror's intent; hence, his kindness was most great.

    In the later dissemination of the teaching to Tibet, some who fancied that they were scholars and yogis misconstrued the meaning of the collections of tantras. Because of this, they did great damage to the maintenance of ethical discipline, the root of the teachings. This excellent being [Atisha] refuted them well. Moreover, he caused their erroneous conceptions to disappear and then reinvigorated the flawless teaching. [10] Thus, his kindness reached all those of the Land of Snow. Furthermore, there are three ideal qualifications for an author of texts that elucidate the intent of the Sage in this way.……
     楼主| 发表于 2012-12-12 19:13:46 | 显示全部楼层
    本帖最后由 贤勤 于 2012-12-12 19:28 编辑

    P42~p43(电子版英文版广论的页码)
    lineages of tenets宗派传承
    lineages of blessings加持传承
    lineages of various instructions种种教授传承
    spiritual attainments得成就
    inconceivable [ɪnkən'siːvəb(ə)l] 不可思【不可思议的】

    以下是电子版英文广论42页~43页部分内容
    2. With regard to the lineages of gurus, ………… Further, with respect to the mantra vehicle, there are five systems of lineages. In addition, there are such lineages as the lineages of tenets, the lineages of blessings, and the lineages of various instructions. Atisha was endowed with instructions from these many lineages. The gurus from whom Atisha received teachings directly are as Nag-tso says:
    The gurus on whom you always relied
    Had achieved spiritual attainments; they were many:
    Santi-pa and Ser-ling-ba,
    Bhadrabodhi, and Jnanasri.
    And, in particular, you possessed
    Instructions on the profound view and the vast deeds
    Passed down over the generations from Nagarjuna.
    It is well known that he had twelve gurus who had achieved spiritual attainments, and there were many others as well.

    3. His mastery of the five topics of knowledge has already been explained. Therefore, this master was able to determine well the intent of the Conqueror. This master who had such qualities had an inconceivable number of students in India…………and Drom-don-ba Gyel-way-jung-nay ('Brom-ston-pa-rgyalba/i-/byung-gnas).
     楼主| 发表于 2012-12-13 09:31:08 | 显示全部楼层
    p45(电子版英文版广论的页码)
    contradiction[kɒntrə'dɪkʃ(ə)n]违【矛盾,反驳】
    refrain[rɪ'freɪn]消灭【抑制】
    wrongdoing['rɒŋduːɪŋ]罪行【不道德的行为】
    discipline the mind调心
    put into practice受持

    以下是电子版英文广论45页部分内容
    II. Showing the greatness of the teaching in order to engender respect for the instructions
    A. The greatness of enabling one to know that all of the teachings are free of contradiction
    B. The greatness of enabling one to understand that all of the scriptures are instructions for practice
    C. The greatness of enabling one easily to find the Conqueror's intent
    D. The greatness of enabling one to refrain automatically from great wrongdoing

    Concerning the teaching to be explained, the root text of these instructions is the Lamp for the Path to Enlightenment. There are many texts composed by the Elder, but the Lamp for the Path to Enlightenment is comprehensive and fundamental. Since it teaches by drawing together the key points of both the sutra and mantra vehicles, its subject matter is comprehensive; since it emphasizes the stages of disciplining the mind, it is easy to put into practice; and since it is adorned with the instructions of two gurus who were skilled in the systems of the two great trailblazers,49 it is superior to other systems.
     楼主| 发表于 2012-12-14 14:46:22 | 显示全部楼层
    p46(英文广论电子版页码)
    to be thoroughly known所应遍知
    to be eliminated所应断除
    to be manifested所应现证
    to be cultivated所应修行
    ambrosial state甘露位

    以下是电子版英文广论46页部分内容
    A. The greatness of enabling one to know that all of the teachings are free of contradiction With regard to the teachings, Avalokitavrata's Commentary on the "Lamp for Wisdom" (Prajna-pradlpa-tlka) says:

    Concerning "teachings," the scriptures of the Bhagavan accurately teach that which is to be thoroughly known, that which is to be eliminated, that which is to be manifested, and that which is to be cultivated by deities and humans who wish to attain the ambrosial state [of a nonabiding nirvana].
     楼主| 发表于 2012-12-15 16:58:27 | 显示全部楼层
    本帖最后由 贤勤 于 2012-12-15 16:59 编辑

    p47(英文广论电子版页码)
    Essay on the Spirit of Enlightenment《释菩提心论》
    commentary
    Compendium of Valid Cognition《集量论略解》
    sravaka声闻道
    pratyekabuddha独觉道
    buddha佛陀道

    以下是电子版英文广论47页部分内容
    Bodhisattvas make it their goal to accomplish the good of the world [all living beings]. Since bodhisattvas must take care of students who are followers of all three lineages [those of sravakas, pratyekabuddhas, and bodhisattvas], they must train in the paths of those three lineages. For, as Nagarjuna's Essay on the Spirit of Enlightenment (Bodhidtta-vivarana) says:
    Because they engender in others
    Certain knowledge that accords with their own,
    The wise apply themselves
    Always and without mistake.

    And, Dharmakirti's Commentary on the "Compendium of Valid Cognition" (Pramana-varttika-kariM) says:
    It is difficult to explain to others
    The results of causes that are obscure to oneself.
    Therefore, if you have not ascertained something exactly, you cannot teach it to others.

    By stating, "Those benefactors of beings who accomplish the good of the world through the knowledge of paths.../' Ajita indicates in the Ornament for Clear Knowledge that knowing the paths of the three vehicles is the method for bodhisattvas to achieve the goal they have set. Also the Mother of Conquerors [The Eighteen- Thousand-Verse Perfection of Wisdom Sutra] says:

    Bodhisattvas should produce all paths—whatever is a path of a sravaka, a pratyekabuddha, or a buddha—and should know all paths. They should also perform the deeds of these paths and bring all of them to completion.
     楼主| 发表于 2012-12-16 12:30:42 | 显示全部楼层
    本帖最后由 贤勤 于 2012-12-17 08:58 编辑

    p47(英文广论电子版页码)
    Hinayana小乘
    diligently seek希求
    perfect buddha正遍觉者
    extinguish[ɪk'stɪŋgwɪʃ; ek-]断灭【消灭】
    accomplish[ə'kʌmplɪʃ; ə'kɒm-] 圆满【实现】

    以下是电子版英文广论47页部分内容
    There are shared and unshared paths to enter the Mahayana.Since the shared are those things that come from the scriptural collections of the Hinayana, how could they be something to set aside? Therefore, Mahayana followers must practice all those things taught in the Hinayana scriptural collections, with only a few exceptions, such as diligently seeking a blissful peace for oneself alone. This is the reason for extensively teaching all three vehicles in the very vast scriptural collections of the bodhisattvas.

    Furthermore, a perfect buddha has not extinguished just a portion of faults and accomplished a mere portion of good qualities, but rather has extinguished all types of faults and accomplished all types of good qualities.…………
     楼主| 发表于 2012-12-17 11:39:41 | 显示全部楼层
    本帖最后由 贤勤 于 2012-12-18 11:20 编辑

    p48(英文广论电子版页码)
    six perfections六到彼岸(六度)
    three forms of ethical discipline三聚戒
    perfection vehicle波罗密多乘
    Amitabha阿弥陀
    cursory['kɜːs(ə)rɪ]粗浅【 粗略的】

    以下是电子版英文广论48页部分内容
    Even to save your life,
    Do not give up the spirit of enlightenment.
    And: The deeds of the six perfections
    Should never be cast aside.

    Further, such is said in many tantric texts.
    Such texts also state that on frequent occasions of entering mandalas of highest yoga tantra, you must take both the shared and the unshared tantric vows. The former are simply the vows of a bodhisattva, and taking the vows means promising to apply yourself to the trainings of a bodhisattva, such as the three forms of ethical discipline. Therefore, the perfection vehicle has no path other than the trainings that accord with your promise to practice the bodhisattva deeds after developing the spirit of enlightenment.

    Moreover, the above qualm is most unreasonable because you must promise to uphold all aspects of the teaching when you take the tantric vow. This is in accordance with what is said in the Diamond Daka Tantra (Vajra-ddka), Integration Tantra (Samputi), and Vajra Climax Tantra on the occasion of taking the pledges of Amitabha:
    Uphold all of the excellent teachings:
    The three vehicles, the external, and the secret.

    Some see a slight discrepancy in terms of what you are and are not to do and conclude that these are in complete contradiction, like hot and cold. Obviously, this is a cursory assessment.…………
    发表于 2012-12-18 09:08:43 | 显示全部楼层
    贤勤 发表于 2012-12-17 11:39
    p48(英文广论电子版页码)
    six perfections六到彼岸(六度)
    three forms of ethical discipline三聚戒

    随喜!
     楼主| 发表于 2012-12-18 11:19:05 | 显示全部楼层
    本帖最后由 贤勤 于 2012-12-18 11:22 编辑

    p49(英文广论电子版页码)
    karmic obstruction业障
    anticipation[æntɪsɪ'peɪʃ(ə)n]思【希望】
    accumulate the collections集积资粮
    clear away obscuration净治罪障
    make aspirational prayers广发正愿

    以下是电子版英文广论49页部分内容
    If you do not gain such an understanding, then, each time you gain what seems to be an understanding of an isolated teaching,you will abandon other teachings. When you develop a supposed interest in the higher vehicles, you will abandon in succession the scriptural collections of the Hinayana and the perfection vehicle. Even within the mantra vehicle you will abandon the three lower tantras and the like. Thus, you will accumulate the great karmic obstruction of having abandoned the teachings, which has a very grave fruition. In this context, this obstruction readily arises and is in danger of doing so. The source for this is indicated below.

    Therefore, having relied upon an excellent protector,solidify your certainty about the way that all the scriptures are causal factors for one person to become a buddha. Then practice those things, that you can practice now. Do not use your own incapacity as a reason to repudiate what you cannot actually engage in or turn away from. Rather, think with anticipation, "When will I practice these teachings by actually doing what should be done and turning away from what should not be done?" Work at the causes for such practice—accumulating the collections, clearing away obscurations, and making aspirational prayers. Before long your mental power will become greater and greater, and you will be able to practice all of the teachings that you were previously unable to practice.
     楼主| 发表于 2012-12-19 13:18:25 | 显示全部楼层
    p49~p50(英文广论电子版页码)
    foursided path四方道
    person补特伽罗
    temporary['temp(ə)rərɪ]现时【 临时的】
    ultimate['ʌltɪmət] 久远【最终的】
    Sublime Continuum《相续本母》

    以下是电子版英文广论49页~50页部分内容
    The Precious Teacher [Drom-don-ba] said, "My guru [Atisha] is the one who knows how to bring all of the teachings within a foursided path." These words are very meaningful. Because these instructions in the Lamp for the Path to Enlightenment guide students by gathering all the key points of the sutra and mantra vehicles into the path for one person to become a buddha, they have the greatness of producing the certainty that all of the teachings are free of contradiction.

    B. The greatness of enabling one to understand that all of the scriptures are instructions for practice
    In general, only the scriptures of the Conqueror provide the means to achieve all temporary and ultimate benefit and happiness for those who desire liberation, for only the Buddha is free from all error in teaching what is to be adopted and what is to be cast aside. Thus the Sublime Continuum (Uttam-tantra) says:
     楼主| 发表于 2012-12-21 15:40:53 | 显示全部楼层
    p50~p51(英文广论电子版页码)
    cast aside舍弃
    stainless['steɪnlɪs]无垢
    flawless['flɔləs]无垢、无暇
    authentic[ɔː'θentɪk]无欺【真实的】
    reveal [rɪ'viːl]开示【揭示】

    以下是电子版英文广论50页~51页部分内容
    Therefore, for something to be a pure personal instruction, it must bestow certain knowledge of the classic texts. No matter how well you learn it, a personal instruction is only something to be cast aside if it cannot bestow certain knowledge of the meaning of the Buddha's words and the great commentaries on their intent, or if it teaches a path incompatible with these.

    There are those who conclude that any classic text should be considered only an explanatory teaching, therefore lacking the key points for practice. They hold that there are separate personal instructions that teach the core meanings that are the heart of practice. They then imagine that there are two separate forms of the excellent teaching—a teaching that is explained to you and a teaching that you practice. Know that this attitude precludes the development of great respect for the stainless sutras and tantras as well as the flawless treatises that comment on their intent. Know also that you accumulate the karmic obstruction of abandoning the teaching when you see those classic texts as objects of contempt and say, "Those are merely for promoting one's superficial knowledge and eliminating others misconceptions; they do not teach the deep meaning."

    Therefore, for those who desire liberation, the supreme and authentic instructions are indeed the classic texts. However, due to your limited intelligence and so forth, you may be unable to recognize those texts as the supreme instructions through depending on them alone. Thus, you must seek out personal instructions, thinking, "I will seek certain knowledge of those texts based on the personal instructions of an excellent being But do not think, 'The texts are without substance, since they merely promote a superficial knowledge and eliminate others misconceptions; yet the personal instructions, since they reveal the deep meaning, are supreme.'
     楼主| 发表于 2012-12-23 16:15:44 | 显示全部楼层
    p51(英文广论电子版页码)
    ascertainment[,æsə'teinmənt]定解【确定】
    body
    speech
    mind
    one session of meditation一座


    以下是电子版英文广论51页部分内容
    The great yogi Qiang-chup-rin-chen (Byang-chub-rin-chen) said:


    Concerning instructions, complete mastery does not mean gaining ascertainment of a mere small volume that fits in the palm of one's hand; it means understanding all of the scriptures as instructions for practice.


    Also, the great Elder's student Gom-ba-rin-chen-la-ma (sGom-parin-chen-bla-ma) said that he understood all of the texts as instructions for practice by "grinding to dust" all wrong actions of body, speech, and mind during one session of meditation on Atisha's instructions. You too must come to such an understanding.
     楼主| 发表于 2012-12-24 16:33:06 | 显示全部楼层
    本帖最后由 贤勤 于 2012-12-25 17:35 编辑

    p51(英文广论电子版页码)
    Treasury of Knowledge《俱舍》
    twofold二【两重的】
    scriptural and realized教证
    racecourse['reɪskɔːs]跑马地
    ridiculous[rɪ'dɪkjʊləs]【荒谬的】

    以下是电子版英文广论51页部分内容
    Here, the teachings are as set forth in Vasubandhu‘s Treasury of Knowledge (Abhidharma-kosa):

    The excellent teaching of the Teacher [Buddha] is twofold:
    Those teachings having a nature of scripture and those having a nature of realization. As this says, there are no more than two types of teaching—scriptural and realized. The scriptural teachings determine the way that you take the teachings in hand, the procedures for practice; the teachings as they are realized are your practice of these procedures in accordance with how you have already determined them.

    Thus, these two serve as cause and effect. For example, it is like showing a horse the racecourse before you race. Once you have shown it, you then race there. It would be ridiculous to show the horse one racecourse and then race on another. Similarly, why would you determine one thing by means of study and reflection, and then, when you go to practice, practice something else? In this vein, the last of KamalasUa's three Stages of Meditation (Bh&van&- krama) says
     楼主| 发表于 2012-12-24 16:35:00 | 显示全部楼层
    本帖最后由 贤勤 于 2012-12-25 17:32 编辑

    p52(英文广论电子版页码)
    stabilizing meditation舍修
    analytical meditation举修
    discerning wisdom择慧、观察慧
    superficial knowledge外解
    surpass[sə'pɑːs]【超越】

    以下是电子版英文广论52页部分内容
    Thus, these instructions include, in complete form, all the key points of the path from the scriptures and their commentaries—from how to rely on a teacher through serenity and insight. They then lead you through concise stages of practice in which you engage in stabilizing meditation on that which requires stabilizing meditation, and you analyze with discerning wisdom that which requires analytical meditation.

    By doing this, you will understand that all of the scriptures are instructions for practice. Otherwise, you will spend your entire life
    without discerning wisdom, practicing just some incomplete portion of the path and not the complete corpus. Thus you will not understand that the classic texts are instructions for practice, but you will abandon them, seeing them as merely promoting superficial knowledge and eliminating others' misconceptions. It is evident that the topics explained in the classic texts are, for the most part, only things that require analysis with discerning wisdom. If you cast them aside when you practice, then how can you develop an understanding that sees them as the supreme instructions? If these are not the supreme instructions, then could you find a master whose instructions surpass these?
     楼主| 发表于 2012-12-25 15:06:30 | 显示全部楼层
    本帖最后由 贤勤 于 2012-12-25 17:11 编辑

    p53(英文广论电子版页码)
    Lotus Sutra《白莲华》
    Chapter of the Truth Speaker《谛者品》
    Sutra Gathering All the Threads《遍摄一切研磨经》
    Manjusri曼殊室利
    subtle['sʌt(ə)l]细微【微妙的】

    以下是电子版英文广论53页部分内容
    D. The greatness of enabling one to refrain automatically from great wrongdoing

    The Lotus Sutra (Sad-dharma-pundarlka-sutrd) and the Chapter of the Truth Speaker (Satyaka-parivarta)66 explain that all of the Buddha's words directly or indirectly teach methods for becoming a buddha. There are those with misunderstanding who hold that some teachings are methods for becoming a buddha and some teachings are obstacles to becoming a buddha. They then differentiate the words of the Buddha into good and bad, reasonable and unreasonable, and great and small vehicles. Finally, they hold that some teachings are to be cast aside, saying, "Abodhisattva should train in this and should not train in that." Thus, they abandon the teachings. The Sutra Gathering All the Threads (Sarva-vaidalya-samgrahasutra) says:

    Manjusri, the karmic obstruction of abandoning the excellent teaching is subtle. Manjusri, whoever distinguishes some of the words spoken by the Tathagata as good and some as bad abandons the teaching. One who abandons the teaching, by having abandoned it, deprecates the Tathagata and speaks badly of the community.
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